There are only two species of orangutan in the world, they are the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo Abelii) and Bornean orangutan (Pongo Pygmaeus), native to Indonesia and Malaysia. Orangutan is two words that combined into one word and derived from local term with meaning in english as "man of forest". Orangutan is the extant great apes from Asia, after chimpanzee, bonobo and gorilla in Africa.


The difference between Sumatran orangutan (Pongo Abelii) and the Bornean orangutan (Pongo Pygmaeus) could be seen from the fur color, the daily behaviour and diets. Sumatran orangutans have brighter color and mostly spend their lives on the trees while the Bornean orangutans have darker color and like to walk on the ground especially the adult males. Experts estimates the difference between Sumatran and Bornean orangutan in the daily social behaviour and where they mostly spend their time based on the some specific reasons. The Sumatran orangutan's behaviour that has been studied and concluded to be more social than Bornean orangutan is due to there are more monkeys or another primates in Sumatran rainforest than in Kalimantan (Borneo). Whilst in the circumstance of why Bornean orangutans spend more time on the ground and Sumatran orangutan spend more time on the tree because there is no the presence of predator such as tigers in Borneo.

The similarity of DNA between humans and orangutans is 97%, while chimpanzee and bonobo share 98.5 - 98.7 percent of their DNA with human, and 96.5 percent hold by gorilla and this DNA similarity status has considered the orangutans as our sibling species. Currently the population of Sumatran orangutans in the wild around 7300, while the population of Bornean orangutan around 45000 - 69000.

There are two groups of orangutan in Bukit Lawang, they are semi-wild and the wild. Orangutan is known as the world's largest arboreal mammal, the adult males weigh between 50 to 90 kg, 1.25 to 1.6 m in height, while the adult females weigh between 30 to 50 kg and stand about 1 to 1.1 m in height. Sumatran orangutan is smaller than the Bornean orangutan. Orangutans are extremely rare to jump, they can jump but they can't do it often, the scientists said this is because "energetic knife-edge", that's why they are just swinging from one tree to another trees. The secret of orangutan movement is to use the natural moment of the trees to keep their own energy costs down. In this circumstance their extra mass is actually a benefit, allowing them to make their tree sway back and forth until it's close enough to the next tree to move on.

This is all about the energy balance, the orangutans don't have a reflex movement and based on their diet, it won't provide much raw energy that may create the ability of parkour moves like humans, chimpanzee or monkeys. Orangutans are also well known to be the energy-efficient mammals. For Sumatran orangutans, climbing down was not an option. Orangutans live high in the tropical canopy of forests, where they forage fruit and sleep in nests. The wild Sumatran orangutans never come to the ground, there are tigers on the forest floor and carnivores that may cause harm to them, so they spend all of their time in the trees. If a gap becomes too large, they could find themselves isolated in one area of forest, like in Batu Kapal.


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