In an ecosystem mechanism, a mutual relationship between the components of biotic and abiotic can never be separated. Biotic component consists of producers, consumers and decomposers, whereas abiotic components consists of light, air, water, soil, temperature, and minerals. The existence of these components are naturally controlled by nature which resulting a condition called "the balance of ecosystem". The balance of ecosystem is characterized by sustainable food chain, but unknowingly most human activities have disrupted the natural control of the balance of ecosystem.

The biosphere is the thin outer layer of the earth that bring the capability of supporting life. Biosphere is formed by biome, while biota is part of biome. Biosphere, biome and biota are existed, due to the balance of ecosystem that its components are still tight and healthy connected, they are biotic and abiotic components, includes living organisms as well as the physical environments.

To maintain the balance ecosystem, the stability of distinctive plant and animal species under the climatic conditions of the region have to be also maintained sustainably and naturally. All living things such as autotrophs and heterotrophs, plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and non-living things such as water, light, wind, soil, humidity, minerals, gases will take important roles to support and form the massive biology mechanism process that so called lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and all of this really needed by humans for their survival.


Environment has important role in the river system, the environmental conditions of riparian or floodplain are determined by the climate, physical characteristics, form of river flow, and human behaviour on the river bank. While the ecosystem is a dynamic system of plants, animals, and microorganisms alongside its environmental groups that interact as one unity functional. In addition, an ecosystem has a structure which formed by the components of biological and non-biological that interacts differently. The more the number of elements in a system that includes ecosystems and mutually beneficial interaction, the disturbance in that ecosystem will be more effective to be balanced.

Thus, the ecosystem can actually go back to the original state after an interruption, but most of the time, ecosystem meet the difficulty to go back to the original state, because it is already completely damaged by the hand of humans. Therefore, it is extremely important efforts to understand and protect the structure and function of this complex ecosystems such as forest ecosystems, marshes and the behaviour of rivers.

The rainforest of Gunung Leuser National Park has a very important role for the ecosystem in Sumatra. Inside the rainforest of Gunung Leuser National Park lives various types of animals and plants. The rainforest of Gunung Leuser National Park provides food, shelter, and protection to the animals. So, if the trees are cut down continuously or deforestation continue to happen, the source of food for animals that living inside the the rainforest of Gunung Leuser National Park will also be reduced or even disappear. The destruction of the ecosystem network and the disconnection of food chains have a large impact on the balance of nature. Just with the loss of single tree that holds important roles to keep the balance of ecosystem, it will also cause a destruction to the balance of the ecosystem. So, self-awareness and knowledge is an important key regarding this problem.


The size of tiger territories varies greatly by locality, season and prey density (the amount of prey in a given area). In areas with high prey densities, tiger territories tend to be smaller in size because ample prey may be found in smaller area. For male tigers in Sumatra rainforest, the prey concentrations are high and male tigers have territories that range in size from 5 to 200 km2. While in Siberia the prey concentrations are much lower and male tiger territories range in size from 800 to 1200 km2.

We often hear several cases such as tigers entering human settlements in the village or orangutan eats durian fruits in villager plantations. This case happens due to the shrinking of origin habitat of those animals. The reasons why this happens are very simple, the tigers come into the human settlements in the village to prey cows because the rising numbers of poachers who hunts pig and deer inside the rainforest, so that the availability of tiger's preys are decreasing sharply. Same things with the orangutan, they come to eat durian fruits in villager plantations because the decreasing numbers of fruit trees due to the loggers who cut down the trees that have important role to keep the balance of ecosystem. The roles of community who have knowledge of "how important is the balance of ecosystem" are very essential to be involved in keeping the balance of ecosystem in our planet, especially in Gunung Leuser National Park.


Indonesia as a third world country has a serious and deep problem on the environmental matters, this is caused by the lack of study in the school about "how important is the balance of ecosystem". When I was still in school, I have never been taught in serious way like, why we should never throw away the plastic trashes to the ground?

The soil pH levels give considerable influence on the soil quality. If the soil have been contaminated with chemicals material such as plastics, This will certainly have a negative impact on the environment. The stability of ecosystem has a very crucial role to the global environment. Nowadays, the damage of ecosystem has changed the behaviour of nature, this could be seen clearly from how the global warming is going on, how the water of the river near industry or factory areas have become toxic water.

After 2 years learning about the behavior of the nature inside and outside of Gunung Leuser National Park, I got my own study on the nature reactions and its impacts, the damage of ecosystem outside Gunung Leuser National Park has changed the behaviour of nature. This could be seen from how the water of the river outside Gunung Leuser National Park that close to the palm oil plantation is getting more dried during long summer. While my another study inside Gunung Leuser National Park has led me to know clearly, each several km2 of rainforest in Gunung Leuser National Park have their own role to maintain the balance of ecosystem, trees that located at the hillside to the edge of the river have more interdependent roles to stabilize soils from the landslide during the rainy season, due to the massive deforestation from the outside Gunung Leuser National Park. (Bobi Handoko)