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There are 9,956 species of birds in the world, 1,594 of them found in Indonesia. This number puts Indonesia ranked 5th as the owner of the Mega Bird Diversity in the world.



Sumatran rainforest is a very important habitat for many bird species. Currently, fifty percent of the world's bird species are threatened with extinction because of their habitat disturbed by human activities, this is the condition that Sumatran rainforest faces. From all endangered bird species, more than half are living in Indonesia's rainforest as its main habitat. As one of the Mega Bird Diversity, Indonesia has remarkable diversity of bird species.

However, the diversity of birds in Indonesia is also facing the threat. Wild Bird Conservation Society of Indonesia recorded 122 species are endangered and entered the red list of IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). This condition puts Indonesia as a country with most endangered birds as well.

Beside the poaching and trade, the main cause of the extinction of various bird species in Indonesia is interference or pressure on the habitat. Human activities alter the natural environment (forest) become agricultural land, plantations, even more like the development of infrastructure for industrial activities, this lead to the massive loss of bird habitat.

The increasing pressure on wildlife and natural ecosystems is caused by the increase of population, economic and development policies. The incidence of pressure on natural habitats is also closely related to the poverty, natural resource utilization, as well as agricultural development. These factors have contributed to the habitat destruction, increased pollution, and excessive natural resource utilization.

In finding the solution, the form of concessions for ecosystem restoration aimed to restore biotic and abiotic conditions in order to achieve biological balance needs to be done. Through ecosystem restoration, the forests that have been destroyed can be saved and restored as its original condition. Ecosystem restoration is not only increasing the productivity of forests and conservation of biological diversity, but also increase the economic value of forest resources for the welfare of society.

The loss of biodiversity is accelerating globally despite the recognition that it is a key element of the environment. Nowadays, indonesian biodiversity and its threats are not evenly distributed, in this matter, the conservation organizations need to focus their actions on places with high importance and level of urgency. Natural resources both biological and non-biological in Sumatra has an important role in human life in the terms of economics, research, education, culture, and tourism as well.

The wildlife, especially birds have an important role to increase the productivity of agriculture, plantation and forestry. Ecologically, birds play an important role in the process of pollination and seed dispersal to the various places. The nature of birds are very sensitive to the environmental changes, that's why the presence of bird species in an area can be regarded as bioindicator of environmental conditions.


Bird diversity differ from one place to another, depending on environmental conditions and other factors that influence it. Species diversity has tight connection with the stability of a community, the community that have a high complexity will lead to the complex networks. Bird diversity tends to be higher in older community and will be lower in communities that have not yet formed or young. That's why, the occurrence of diversity in the tropics are highest, because the climate pressure and time. (Odum, 1971 & Bailey et al, 1974)